Aerial Dissemination of Clostridium difficile spores
Katherine Roberts, Caroline F Smith, Anna M Snelling, Kevin G Kerr, Kathleen R Banfield, P Andrew Sleigh and Clive B Beggs
Background: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is a frequently occurring healthcare-associated infection, which is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality amongst elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Environmental contamination is known to play an important contributory role in the spread of CDAD and it is suspected that contamination might be occurring as a result of aerial dissemination of C. difficile spores.
Evaluation of bedmaking-related airborne and surface methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination.
Authors: Shiomori T, Miyamoto H, Makishima K, Yoshida M, Fujiyoshi T, Udaka T, Inaba T, Hiraki N.
Background: The number of airborne methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) before, during and after bed making was investigated. Air was sampled with an Andersen air sampler in the rooms of 13 inpatients with MRSA infection or colonization. Sampling of surfaces, including floors and bedsheets, was performed by stamp methods. The results suggest that MRSA was recirculated in the air, especially after movement.
Hospital air: A potential route for transmission of infections caused by β-lactam–resistant bacteria
Authors: Seyed Hamed Mirhoseini PhD, Mahnaz Nikaeen PhD, Zahra Shamsizadeh MS, Hossein Khanahmad PhD
Background: The emergence of bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics seriously challenges the treatment of various nosocomial infections. This study was designed to investigate the presence of β-lactam–resistant bacteria (BLRB) in hospital air.
Human Occupancy as a Source of Indoor Airborne Bacteria
Authors: Denina Hospodsky, Jing Qian, William W. Nazaroff, Naomichi Yamamoto, Kyle Bibby, Hamid Rismani-Yazdi, Jordan Peccia
Background: Exposure to specific airborne bacteria indoors is linked to infectious and noninfectious adverse health outcomes. This study presents evidence for elevated concentrations of indoor airborne bacteria due to human occupancy, and investigates the sources of these bacteria. The high content of bacteria specific to the skin, nostrils, and hair of humans found in indoor air and in floor dust indicates that floors are an important reservoir of human-associated bacteria, and that the direct particle shedding of desquamated skin cells and their subsequent resuspension strongly influenced the airborne bacteria population structure in this human-occupied environment.
Significance of Airborne Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Unit
Authors: Teruo Shiomori, MD, PhD; Hiroshi Miyamoto, MD, PhD; Kazumi Makishima, MD, PhD
Background: To quantitatively investigate the existence of airborne methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a hospital environment and to perform phenotyping and genotyping of MRSA isolates to study MRSA epidemiology.
The Potential for Airborne Dispersal of Clostridium difficile from Symptomatic Patients
Authors: Emma L. Best, Warren N. Fawley, Peter Parnell, and Mark H. Wilcox
Background. The high transmissibility and widespread environmental contamination by Clostridium difficile suggests the possibility of airborne dissemination of spores. We measured airborne and environmental C. difficile adjacent to patients with symptomatic C. difficile infection (CDI).